PjSE

Paris-Jourdan Sciences Économiques - UMR8545





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PjSE - UMR8545
48 boulevard Jourdan
75014 Paris
France
Tél : 01 80 52 16 00
pjse AT ens.fr

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Accueil du site > Séminaires > Agenda du 16 au 20 avril 2018

Agenda du 16 au 20 avril 2018

Lundi 16 avril 2018

Régulation | 12:00-14:00

Salle R1-13, Campus Jourdan, 48 boulevard Jourdan, 75014 Paris _ TRAEGER Christian (University of Oslo) : ACE – Analytic Climate Economy
Résumé

The paper develops an analytic integrated assessment model of climate change. It enhances our current understanding of climate policy and explains crucial relations to the broader audience. The model offers a novel framework to address climate change uncertainties. The analytic solution overcomes Bellman’s curse of dimensionality for a wide range of stochastic processes. I analyze the policy implications of the main climate uncertainties and show the different welfare implications of “objective” uncertainty, epistemological uncertainty, and anticipated learning. In contrast to earlier suggestions in the literature, uncertainty is not more relevant to climate change evaluation than discounting, but uncertainty makes the policy recommendations even more sensitive to the calibration of the discount rates and its individual components than under certainty. The present Analytic Climate Economy (ACE) is the first analytic model comprising all the components considered essential for quantitative policy advising.

Mardi 17 avril 2018

Economie appliquée | 12:30-13:30

Salle R1-09, Campus Jourdan, 48 boulevard Jourdan, 75014 Paris
FABRE Adrien (PSE) : French Favored Redistribution Derived From Surveys : A Political Assessment of Optimal Tax Theory
Résumé An original method of estimating desired income tax rates ispresented, which is in turn usedto assess the political acceptability of the optimal tax theory. Two surveys have been conductedin 2016 to quantify French preferences for income redistribution. In the first survey, respondentspicked their preferred values for parameters which were used to determine the shapes of redistri-butions. These parameters included the proportion of winners and losers from a tax reform, andthe minimum guaranteed income. Using different algorithms,several redistributions were derivedfrom the interpolation of the median choices of each parameter (50% of winners, 10% of losersand a monthly demogrant of 800€). They resulted in transfersfrom high to low incomes of onetenth of the national disposable income. In the second survey, a majority of respondents agreed onimplementing these redistributions. These results are in line with previous literature and robustto alternative specifications. Interestingly, the averagedesired redistribution corresponds closelyto the shape of the optimal taxation derived from an utilitarian criterion. This allowed to showthat this redistribution fails to obtain a significant majority support (contrarily to others), despiteits good reception in a setting inhibiting self-interest. Finally, this study provides evidence thatFrench citizens support a more direct democratic procedureto define the income tax rates, andproposes a way to do so.

PSI PSE | 17:00-18:00

Salle R1-13, Campus Jourdan, 48 boulevard Jourdan, 75014 Paris
BREBION Clément : The ’strategic discrimination’ of works councillors in Germany : new evidence of the demise of a model ?

Mercredi 18 avril 2018

Histoire économique | 12:30-14:00

Salle R2-20, Campus Jourdan, 48 boulevard Jourdan, 75014 Paris
MITCHENER Kris : Swords into Bank Shares : Finance, Conflict and Political Reform in Meiji Japan

Economie du développement | 16:30-18:00

Salle R2-01, campus Jourdan - 48 bd Jourdan 75014 Paris
RAVALLION Martin (Georgetown University ) : Social Protection and Economic Development : Are the Poorest Lifted-Up or Left-Behind ?
Résumé

One often hears concerns that the poorest are being “left behind” by social policies and economic development. Yet standard measures of poverty may reveal nothing about whether the poorest are being lifted-up or left-behind. The paper draws on a recent approach to measuring the time-mean floor of any observed distribution containing transient effects and measurement errors. Guided by a theoretical model of the determination of that floor, the paper assesses whether social spending has reached the poorest and what role economic development has played. Both cross-country data and time-series data for the US indicate that social spending lifted the floor. Food stamps in the US raised the floor more than one would expect from a uniform (untargeted) allocation of mean spending. The opposite holds for the developing counties, 87% which do not raise the floor through social spending more than mean spending. Across countries, we observe higher pre-transfer floors when mean income is higher. An inequitable growth process created a sinking floor in the US since the mid-1990s, though the higher public sending on food stamps helped stabilize the floor in the wake of the 2008 crisis. Both data sets suggest a complementarity between social spending and economic growth in determining the gains to the poorest from social spending.

Jeudi 19 avril 2018

Travail et économie publique | 12:30-13:45

NOTOWIDIGDO Matthew (Northwestern University) : The Effects of Information and Application Assistance : Experimental Evidence from SNAP
Co-author : Amy Finkelstein
Résumé

This paper develops a framework for evaluating the welfare impact of various interventions designed to increase take-up of social safety net programs in the presence of potential behavioral biases. We then calibrate key parameters using a randomized field experiment in which 30,000 elderly individuals not enrolled in - but likely eligible for - the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) are either provided with information that they are likely eligible or provided with this information and also offered assistance in applying ; a "status quo" control group receives no contact. Only 6 percent of the control group enrolls in SNAP over the next 9 months, compared to 11 percent of the Information Only group and 18 percent of the Information Plus Assistance group. The individuals who apply or enroll in response to either intervention receive lower benefits and are less sick than the average enrollee in the control group. Despite the poor targeting properties of the interventions, our rough calculations suggest that they are nonetheless a cost-effective way to redistribute to low-income individuals relative to other safety net programs.

Vendredi 20 avril 2018

Casual Friday | 12:45-13:45

Salle R2-01, Campus Jourdan, 48 boulevard Jourdan, 75014 Paris
DESCHENES Sarah (PSE, INED) : Assessing the Effects of an Education Policy on Women’s Wellbeing : Evidence from Benin
Co-authors : Rozenn Hotte (PSE)