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Paris-Jourdan Sciences Économiques - UMR8545





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PjSE - UMR8545
48 boulevard Jourdan
75014 Paris
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Accueil du site > Séminaires > Agenda du 5 au 9 mars 2018

Agenda du 5 au 9 mars 2018

UMR8545

Lundi 5 mars 2018

Régulation et environnement | 12:00-14:00
Salle R1-13, Campus Jourdan, 48 boulevard Jourdan, 75014 Paris
IOSSA Elisabetta (University of Rome Tor Vergata) : Project Choice and Innovation Policy : the case for Public Procurement
Co-authors : DE CHIARA Alessandro
Résumé

There is a long standing policy debate on the role and design of innovation policies. In this paper, we develop a model of project choice with competition for funding and compare : (i) A Demand-side approach, in which the public authority restricts the type of research project eligible for funding, with (ii) A Supply-side approach, in which the public authority chooses its preferred project among those submitted. The authority can verify the characteristics of the projects submitted by the firms, but does not know which other projects the firms have available. We compare the two approaches from the point of view of the authority and in terms of social welfare, considering both small projects which the firm could self-finance and larger projects which would not be implemented absent public funds. We identify under which conditions a Demand-side approach is preferable in terms of allocative efficiency and investment incentives.

ROY | 17:00-18:30
Salle R1-09, Campus Jourdan, 48 boulevard Jourdan, 75014 Paris
MIERENDORFF Konrad (University College London) : Optimal Sequential Decision with Limited Attention
Co-authors CHE Yeon-Koo
Résumé

We consider a dynamic model of information acquisition. Before taking an action, a decision maker may direct her limited attention to collecting different types of evidence that support alternative actions. The optimal policy combines three strategies : (i) immediate action, (ii) a contradictory strategy seeking to challenge the prior belief, and (iii) a confirmatory strategy seeking to confirm the prior. The model produces a rich dynamic stochastic choice pattern as well as predictions in settings such as jury deliberation and political media choice. Keywords : Wald sequential decision problem, choice of information, contradictory and confirmatory learning strategies, limited attention.

Mardi 6 mars 2018

Economie appliquée | 12:30-13:30
Salle R1-09, Campus Jourdan, 48 boulevard Jourdan, 75014 Paris
ELLISON Glenn (MIT) : The efficiency of Race-Neutral Alternatives to Race-Based Affirmative Action : Evidence from Chicago’s Exam Schools
Co-authors : PATHAK Parag (MIT)
Résumé

Several public K-12 and university systems have recently shifted from race-based affirmative action plans to race-neutral alternatives. This paper explores the degree to which race-neutral alternatives are effective substitutes for racial quotas using data from the Chicago Public Schools (CPS), where a race-neutral, place-based affirmative action system is used for admissions at highly competitive exam high schools. We develop a theoretical framework that motivates quantifying the efficiency cost of race-neutral policies by the extent admissions decisions are distorted more than needed to achieve a given level of diversity. According to our metric, CPS’s race-neutral system is 24% and 20% efficient as a tool for increasing minority representation at the top two exam schools, i.e. about three-fourths of the reduction in composite scores could have been avoided by explicitly considering race. Even though CPS’s system is based on socioeconomic disadvantage, it is actually less effective than racial quotas at increasing the number of low-income students. We examine several alternative race-neutral policies and find some to be more efficient than the CPS policy. What is feasible varies with the school’s surrounding neighborhood characteristics and the targeted level of minority representation. However, no race-neutral policy restores minority representation to prior levels without substantial inefficiency, implying significant efficiency costs from prohibitions on affirmative action policies that explicitly consider race.

Trade | 14:30-16:00
Salle R2-21,Campus Jourdan, 48 boulevard Jourdan 75014 Paris
BAHAR Dany (The Brookings Institution) : Diasporas, return migration and comparative advantage : a natural experiment of Yugoslavian refugees in GermanyCo-authors : HAUPTMANN Andreas, OZGUREL Cem and RAPOPORT Hillel
Texte intégral [pdf]

PSI PSE | 17:00-18:00
Salle R2-20,Campus Jourdan, 48 boulevard Jourdan 75014 Paris
HOTTE Rozenn : Marriage Payments and Wife’s Welfare : All you need is love
Co-authors : LAMBERT Sylvie

Mercredi 7 mars 2018

Histoire économique | 12:30-14:00
Salle R2-01, Campus Jourdan, 48 boulevard Jourdan, 75014 Paris
NELSON Scott (University of Georgia) : A Nitroglycerin Apocalypse
Résumé

This talk will explore the relationship between stabilized nitrates and states, from the formation of empires based on gunpowder in the fifteenth century to the role of nitroglycerin in destroying them after 1868. Topics will include new tunnels in the international network (Suez, Mt. Cenis, and the Appalachian mountains), how grain storage centers moved as transcontinental cables emerged, and suggest how stabilized nitroglycerin contributed to the international panic of 1873.

Economie du développement | 16:30-18:00
Salle R2-01,Campus Jourdan, 48 boulevard Jourdan 75014 Paris
MESNARD Alice (City University of London) : Do men and women have equal access to health care ? Evidence on health care utilisation in Nigeria
Co-authors : CAVATORTA Elisa and JANSSENS Wendy

Jeudi 8 mars 2018

Comportement | 11:00-12:00
Salle R2-21,Campus Jourdan, 48 boulevard Jourdan 75014 Paris
BAUMARD Nicolas : Psychological origins of the industrial revolution

Since the Industrial Revolution, human societies have experienced a high and sustained rate of economic growth. Recent explanations of this sudden and massive change in economic history have held that modern growth results from an acceleration of innovation. But it is unclear why the rate of innovation drastically accelerated in England in the 18th century. An important factor might be the alteration of individual preferences with regard to innovation due to the unprecedented living standards of the English during that period, for two reasons. First, recent developments in economic history challenge the standard Malthusian view according to which living standards were stagnant until the Industrial Revolution. Pre-industrial England enjoyed a level of affluence that was unprecedented in history. Second, Life History Theory, a branch of evolutionary biology, has demonstrated that the human brain is designed to respond adaptively to variations in resources in the local environment. In particular, a more favorable environment (high resources, low mortality) triggers the expression of future-oriented preferences. In this paper, I argue that some of these preferences – a lower level of time discounting, a higher capacity to accept losses, a lower materialistic orientation and a higher tendency to explore – are likely to increase the rate of innovation. I review the evidence regarding the impact of affluence on preferences in contemporary we well as in past populations, and conclude that the impact of affluence on neuro-cognitive systems may partly explain the modern acceleration of technological innovations and the associated economic growth.

Travail et économie publique | 12:30-13:45
Salle R1-09, Campus Jourdan, 48 boulevard Jourdan 75014 Paris
BANERJEE Abhijit (MIT) : The Entertaining Way to Behavioral Change
Co-authors : LA FERRARA Eliana and OROZCO Victor
Résumé

We test the effectiveness of an entertainment education TV series, MTV Shuga, aimed at providing information and changing attitudes and behaviors related to HIV/AIDS. Using a simple model we show that "edutainment" can work through an "information" or through a "conformity" channel. We conducted a randomized controlled trial in urban Nigeria where young viewers were exposed to Shuga or to a non-educational TV series. Among those who watched Shuga, we created additional variation in the "social messages" they received and in the people with whom they watched the show. We find significant improvements in knowledge and attitudes towards HIV and risky sexual behavior. Treated subjects are twice as likely to get tested for HIV 6 to 9 months after the intervention. We also find reductions in STDs among women. Our experimental manipulations of the social norm component did not produce significantly different results from the main treatment. Also, we don’t detect significant spillovers on the behavior of friends who did not watch Shuga. The "information" effect of edutainment thus seems to have prevailed in the context of our study.

TOM | 12:30-13:30
Salle R2-20, Campus Jourdan, 48 boulevard Jourdan 75014 Paris
ZHAO Wei (HEC Paris) : Optimal bridge players among separated networks.
Résumé

Abstract : This paper studies the optimal bridge problem among multiple separated separated networks and examines optimal targeting of players, groups and central planner. We find that the optimal choice (new links connect with other groups) of the group coincides with the individual’s rational choice. But, the best choice for the central planner may be different from the individual’s rational choice. We have shown how player’s centrality is going to be affected due to combination of separated networks, and how this is related to the self-loops and Bonacich centrality of these separated networks. We construct an exact index to identify the key bridge players linking up whom will mostly increase aggregate equilibrium effort and aggregate equilibrium welfare, and we find that the key bridge players may consist of neither each group’s key players nor central players. We provides its implications on company merge, optimal targeting, community merge and network design.

Macroéconomie | 15:45-17:00
Salle R1-09, Campus Jourdan, 48 boulevard Jourdan 75014 Paris
DELACROIX David (UC Louvain) : Childbearing Postponement, its Option Value, and the Biological Clock
Co-authors : POMMERET A.

Vendredi 9 mars 2018

EPCI | 11:00-12:30
Salle 116, MSE, 106-112 Bd de l’Hôpital 75013 Paris
BERAMENDI Pablo (Duke University) : Economic and Political Inequality (book presentation)

Casual Friday | 13:15-14:15
Salle R2-01, Campus Jourdan, 48 boulevard Jourdan, 75014 Paris
OBERLANDER Lisa (PSE) : TV exposure, food consumption and health outcomes - evidence from Indonesia

UMR8545